Information about Alabama for each letter of the alphabet.
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A IS FOR AGRICULTURE, AMISH, ARCHAEOLOGY, & ART
Alabama has several ARCHAEOLOGY sites and some are on the National Register of Historic Places in Alabama. The Jere Shine Site is belived to have been occupied from 1400–1550 CE. The Nanna Hubba Bluff site is thought to have been occupied as far back as 1,000 BC. The Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter is one of the most important prehistoric sites excavated in the state due to the archeological evidence deposited by the Paleo-Indians who once occupied the rock shelter. archaeology events are held during the year.
Alabama has over 400 species of BIRDS. Several regions have Birding Trails which includes directional signage, interpretive panels, kiosks, observation towers, visitor guides, and maps. Dauphin Island has bird sanctuaries. Bird watching is popular and there are many Birding Hotspots. Alabama is the the only state that chose a Woodpecker as state bird - the Yellowhammer. The State Mascot is the Eastern tiger swallowtail. The State Game Bird is the Wild Turkey. The state has Bird Clubs.
Alabama has many BRIDGES including covered bridges, pedestrian bridges, railroad bridges, and road bridges. Horton Mill is the highest covered bridge in the country above a waterway. Swann is the highest and largest bridge in the state. The General W. K. Wilson Jr. Bridge is one of the longest in the country. The Benjamin Fitzpatrick Bridge is one of the longest curved bridges in the world. Alabama has several Historic Bridges.
Alabama was a part of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War after seceding from the United States of America in 1861. It provided a significant source of troops and leaders, military material, supplies, food, and, early on, cotton to be exchanged in England for munitions (until the port of Mobile was closed off by the U.S. Navy). Several battles were fought in the state. In 1864 at the Battle of Mobile Bay, Admiral David Farragut issued his famous command “Damn the torpedoes full speed ahead. Alabama has 3 Civil War Museums and Civil War Sites and battlefieds.
Alabama has all forms of COMMUNICATION including newspapers, magazine, radio, and television. Internet Service Providers and Webcams are located throughout the state. Alabama has several telephone Area Codes.
Alabama has 67 counties The term "county" is used in 48 of the 50 states for the level of government below the state government. Greene is the smallest county in the state and Baldwin the largest. Jefferson is the largest county by population and Etowah is the smallest.
Alabama claims to be the best place east of the Mississippi River to find the remains of DINOSAURS. Most fossils discovered in the state are from the Late Cretacous period and many different dinosaurs lived there. Alabama is a good state to go fossil hunting. The Anniston Museum of Natural History, the McWane Center in Birmingham, and the Alabama Museum of Natural History in Tuscaloosa have a variety of exhibits. State Fossil is the Basilosaurus ("King Lizard") a genus of cetacean that lived 40 to 34 million years ago.
The Alabama State Department of EDUCATION free public education for children from ages 6-17. The Alabama public school system (prekindergarten through grade 12) operates within districts governed by locally elected school boards and superintendents. There are also many private schools and home schooling is popular. Schoolbug and Great Schools provide information about public schools in the state.
A variety of EVENTS. The State Fair is held at Oak Mountain. County Fairs are held throughout the state. The Alabama National Fair is held in Montgomery. There are also a variety of Festivals. Alabama celebrates all Public Holidays and other special days. A Jubilee is an event in Mobile Bay that attracts large crowds drawn by the promise of abundant and easy-to-catch seafood. Confederate Memorial Day is celebrated the 4th Monday in April.
The state FLAG was authorized by the Alabama legislature in 1895. Several Municipalities and Counties have their own flag. The Confederate Flag was designed and first flown in Alabama in 1861. The Poarch Band of Creek have their own flag. The Coat of Arms depicts a shield upon which is carried the symbols of the five nations which have at various times held sovereignty over a part or the whole of what is now Alabama.
Alabama FOOD begins with the cultivation of corn by Native Americans in the Mississippian Period (1000-1500), which revolutionized Native American life in eastern and southern North America. Fried Pies are said to have originated in Alabama. The state has FOOD Festivals, Events, and Shows and celebrates World Food Day. The Shrimp Festival is one of the most famous in the country. The Pepper Jelly Festival recognizes the unique pepper jelly made at the Rural Heritage Center. The National Peanut Festival in Dothan is the largest peanut festival in the country. The Blackberry is the State Fruit, the Peach is the State Tree Fruit, and the Pecanis the State Nut. Lane Cake is the official Cake. Alabama has a variety of famous food. The Albama Barbeque Championship is the official state barbecue championship.
Alabama has had many FORTS. Most of them have been destroyed but a few have monuments or been made into parks. Fort Conde in Mobile is a reconstruction, at 4/5 scale, as a third of the original 1720s French Fort Condé at the site. The Fort Mims site is maintained by the Alabama Historical Commission and was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1972. Fort Gaines is an historic fort on Dauphin Island. Fort McClellan was closed in 1995 but grounds of the Fort continue to be operated by the Alabama National Guard and home to the Center for Domestic Preparedness of the Department of Homeland Security. The Mountain Longleaf National Wildlife Refuge is on undeveloped land and McClellan is a master-planned, mixed-use community that was carved from the developed portions of the original fort. Fort Mitchell is a historic site, a park, and an archaeological site. Fort Morgan is a historic masonry star fort and some scholars regard it as "one of the finest examples of military architecture in the New World. Fort Rucker is the primary flight training base for Army Aviation and is home to the United States Army Aviation Center of Excellence, and the United States Army Aviation Museum. Fort Toulouse is a historic fort near the city of Wetumpka that is maintained by the Alabama Historical Commission.
Alabama has GHOST TOWNS. There are 2 churches and a cemetery in Barnsville. Cahaba was the first permanent state capital of Alabama and is now a state historic site. The state claims to have several haunted places. Blakeley was the location of a major fort during the Civil War and is now in a historic state park. Centerdale has a few old house sites, the old general store, and a barn. Pansey has several boarded up houses, and an old mill and church. The Old St. Stephens is no longer inhabited. It was the territorial capital of the Alabama Territory. It is now encompassed by the Old St. Stephens Historical Park and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Stanton has a few residents, 2 churches(Ebenezer Baptist is a state historic landmark), numerous abandoned trailers, storefronts, and wooden buildings.
The GLOBAL POSTION of Alabama is approximately 32 degrees latitude north and 86 degrees longitude west. The geographic center is in a cemetery 12 miles southwest of Clanton in Chilton County. The highest point above sea level is Cheaha Mountain and the lowest point is at Mobile Bay, an inlet of the Gulf of Mexico. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east, Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, and Mississippi to the west. Geocaching is a high-tech sport using a Global Positioning Finder and the state has many Geocaches. The topography of the state ranges from sea level to 3,000 ft.
The GULF COAST is along the Southern United States. Several states have a shoreline on the Gulf including Alabama. The Gulf Coastal Plain and the western portions are made up of many barrier islands and peninsulas. The central consists primarily of marshland. The eastern part of the Gulf Coast has many bays and inlets. The coast of Alabama has 4 diverse ecosystems including an ancient maritime live oak forest, wet long leaf pine savanna, fresh water marsh, and small stream swamp forest. The marine area in Alabama has many square miles approved for the construction of artificial reefs in the first and largest organized artificial reef program in the country. The Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources has constructed 13 inshore reefs within Mobile and Bon Secour Bays through the “Roads to Reefs” partnership that recycles bridge material as artificial reef habitat. The Gulf State Park Pier is the second longest pier on the Gulf of Mexico.
The HISTORY of Alabama dates back thousands of years when Indigenous people lived in what is now Alabama. Trade with the Northeast via the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period (1000 BC–AD 700). The agrarian Mississippian culture covered most of the state from AD 1000 to 1600. Among the historical tribes of Native American people living in the area of present-day Alabama at the time of European contact were Iroquoian-speaking Cherokee, and the Muskogean-speaking Alabama, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Koasati. The French founded the first European settlement in the region at Old Mobile in 1702. The state participates in National History Day.
The State HORSE is the Racking Horse. The Alabama Stakes was inaugurated in 1872 and is an American Thoroughbred horse race open to three-year-old fillies. The Alabama Horse Council represents the horse industry in the state. A variety of Horse Show Events are held throughout the year. The Alabama State Championship Horse Show is the State Horse Show. The Stockton Fall Horseshoe Tournament is the State Horseshoe Tournament.
Alabama has a variety of INSECTS including many butterflies and moths. The coast of Alabama is home to a massive Monarch butterfly migration and it is the State Insect. The State Butterfly is the Eastern Tiger SwallowTail.
Alabama has many ISLANDS. Some of them are on the U.S. list of Islands because they have a ham radio. Dauphine Island is home to the Dauphin Island Sea Lab a primary marine education and research center. The island has an annual Deep Sea Fishing Rodeo.
The JUDICIAL Sytem in Alabama is one of the oldest in the country. It consists of a Supreme Court, Court of Civil Appeal, Court of Criminal Appeal, and Supreme Court & State Law Library.
Many aspects of life in Alabama focus on KIDS. The Secretary of State has a Kids Page. There is information about things to do with kids. NOAA has a special weather page for kids. Agriculture in the Classroom has resources for teachers and kids. The U.S. Mint has a special Kids Page. L IS FOR LAKES, LIBRARIES, & LIGHTHOUSES
Public LIBRARIES are located throughout Alabama. There are also private libraries. The Alabama Department of Archives is the oldest state-funded archival agency in the country. Two festivals in Montgomery include the Alabama Book Festival in April and the Alabama Shakespeare Festival which is amoung the ten largest Shakespeare festivals in the world. Alabama has a poet laureate and celebrates National Poetry month.
Alabama has 3 historic LIGHTHOUSES but only one is active and another has been removed for restoration. The Middle Bay Lighthouse has been located in the center of the Mobile Bay since 1885 and was automated in 1935. A lighthouse is an important aspect to the mariner.
Alabama has several MOUNTAIN ranges and mountain climbing is a popular activity. Cheaha Mountain is the highest mountain in the state. The Appalachian Mountains run through the eastern part of the state.
Alabama has a variety of MUSEUMS. There is a Boll Weevil Monument in Enterprise to acknowledge the role this destructive insect played in encouraging farmers to grow crops other than cotton. Battleship Memorial Park has a collection of notable aircraft and museum ships.
The first people to inhabit what is now Alabama were NATIVE AMERICANS. The Poarch Creek Tribe is the only federally recognized tribe in the state, but other tribes also live in Alabama. There are several Native American events during the year. Sequoya devised the phonetic, written alphabet of the Cherokee language.
Alabama has 2 OPERA companies. Opera Birmingham produces world-class operatic productions and concerts. Mobile Opera is one of the oldest performing arts organizations in the country as well as the oldest in the state. The Fort Payne Opera House is on the National Register of Historic Places and the National Register of 19th Century Theaters in America. Completely restored, the Opera House is a cultural center of the community. The official State Song is Alabama. Many songs have been written about Alabama or places in the state. The American folk dance is the Square dance.The Alabama Theatre for the Performing Arts is the State Historic Theatre. The official State Outdoor Drama is "The Miracle Worker">. The State Outdoor Musical Drama is "The Incident at Looney's Tavern". P IS FOR PARKS & PEOPLE
Alabama has nearly 5 million PEOPLE and residents are called Alabamians. Many famous people have either been born in Alabama or lived there. Alabama reared some of the greatest athletes of our time and some of the most famous Civil Rights leaders. Bobby Bowden may be the most famous college football coach around. Hank Aaron was the greatest home run hitter in Major league baseball and Joe Louis is considered one of the greatest Heavyweight boxers of all time.
Alabama is home to 93 species of REPTILES including one species of crocodilian, 12 lizard species, 49 snake species, and 31 turtle species. There are 4 known introduced reptile species, all lizards. The State Reptile is the Alabama Red-bellied Turtle and there is a Sea Turtles Conservation Program.. The State Amphibian is the Red Hills Salamander. The state is part of the Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation Program. There is a Sea Turtle Volunteer Program.
Alabama has over 77,000 miles of RIVERS and streams with more freshwater biodiversity than any other US state. The rivers in the state are among the most biologically diverse and one of the longest navigable inland waterways in the country. The Cahaba River is the longest free-flowing river in Alabama and is among the most scenic and biologically diverse rivers in the country. The Tennessee River Gorge is the 4th largest river gorge in the eastern part of the country. The Alabama Rivers Alliance protects & restores rivers in the state. Whitewater Rafting is popular and there is a Coosa River Whitewater Festival.
Alabama has many TRAILSincluding Bike trail, walking trail, running trail, and dog walking trails. The Alabama Trails Association provides information about TRAILS in the state. In addition to walking trails, there are Horse Trails and facilities. The Atkinson Trail at Wheeler Wildlife Refuge is considered one of the best in the state. Alabama participates in National Trails Day. The state has several scenic byways and Roadside Attractions.
Alabama has all forms of TRANSPORTATION. . The Department of Transportation is responsible for transportation in the state and has an adopt-a-mile program. The first electric trolley system was introduced in Montgomery in 1886. A variety of special License Plates Designs are available. The Federal Highway Administration provides information about traffic conditions in the state. In celebration of its 50th birthday in 2002, Matchbox cars issued a vehicle for each state. The vehicle for Alabama was the Airport Fire Pumper.
Alabama has many species of TREESzzzz. The state tree is the Longleaf Pine. Alabama has over 100 Champion Trees. The state has several State Forests and 4 National Forests - the Talladega, the Conecuh, the Tuskegee, and the William B. Bankhead. The Talladega is the largest in the state and the Tuskegee is the smallest in the country.
Seven ships have been named USS Alabama. The 1st USS Alabama (1819) was a 74-gun ship of the line was never completed and was eventually launched As USS New Hampshire. The 2nd USS Alabama (1838) was a sidewheel steamer transferred to the Navy in 1849 that served as a troop transport during the Mexican-American War. The 3rd USS Alabama (1850)was a sidewheel steamer merchant vessel that was commissioned in 1861 during the American Civil War. The 4th USS Alabama (BB-8) was a pre-dreadnought battleship commissioned in 1900 and scrapped in 1924. The 5th USS Alabama (SP-1052) was a 69-foot motor boat inspected by the Navy in the summer of 1917. The 6th USS Alabama (BB-60)) was a South Dakota-class battleship commissioned in 1942, converted to a museum ship in 1964 and is now docked in Mobile. The 7th USS Alabama (SSBN-731) is an Ohio-class submarine currently in service.
There is no evidence that Alabama ever had volcanoes.
The WEATHER in Alabama is classified as subtropical. Temperatures tend to be warmer in the southern part of the state with its proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. Generally, Alabama has very hot summers and mild winters with precipitation throughout the year. Hailstorms occur occasionally in the spring and summer. The northern part of the state is vulnerable to violent tornadoes. The Gulf Coast area is vulnerable to hurricanes as well as floods and severe thunderstorms. The current weather is provided by Weather Underground and NOAA. Global Warming is being investigated. Information is available about climate change in the state.
Alabama has a variety of WILDLIFE. Some animals are threatened or endangered. The State Mammal is the American Black Bear. Several rare species call coastal Alabama home, such as the Gopher Tortoise, the Alabama Beach Mouse, the Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake, and Red-cockaded Woodpecker. Alabama has 10 Wildlife Refuges and a Wildlife Action Plan. The Alabama Wildlife Federation has educational programs.
Time ZONES are established by the Coordinated Universal Time. The United States has several Time Zones. Alabama is in the the Central and Eastern Time Zones. The state has several Plant Hardiness Zones.