A IS FOR AGRICULTURE, ARCHAEOLOGY, & ART
ARCHAEOLOGY is important in Argentina and the country has several important archaeological sites. The Uspallata Archaeology Program investigates the site of Cerro Tunduqueral. A 14,000 year old campsite outside the city of Tres Arroyos has given a new understanding of how the pre-Clovis people might have lived. Pucará de Tilcara was declared a National Monument in 2000. It has been partially rebuilt, and is the only publicly accessible archaeological site in the Quebrada de Humahuaca. The ruins of Quilmes are considered one of the most important archaeological locations in Argentina. Inca archaeological sites are found on the Aracarvolcano. The Dr. Julio Marc Provincial Historical Museum has archaeological items, Spanish-American art, numismatics, pre-Columbian textile and silverwork crafts, and weapons, and collections of historical newspapers and maps.
ART is an important part of the history of Argentina. The Eduardo Sivori Museum has over 4,000 works with many Argentine artists represented. There are also temporary displays, an art library, restoration workshop, and a Sculpture Gardem. The museum hosts the annual Manuel Belgrano salon.The National Museum of Fine Arts has a permanent collection of major works, sketches, fragments, potteries and other minor works. It also maintains a specialized library and a public auditorium. In 2004, a branch was opened in the Patagonian region city of Neuquén. This museum holds 4 exhibit halls and a permanent collection of 215 works, as well as temporary exhibits and a public auditorium. The Museum of Contemparary Art took advantage of an abandoned grain silo. The bulk of the building consists of 8 large concrete silos, painted in different colors. There is a glass elevator outside the building. The actual museum exhibition is located on an attached building. It has 10 floors and a collection of 300 art works by 220 different artists.
Argentina has over a thousand species of BIRDS of which 16 are endemic, 8 have been introduced, 39 are rare or accidental, and 5 are extinct or extirpated. The Central Grassland is inhabited by the Rhea, a large flightless bird, Hawks, Falcons, Herons, and Tinamou. The largest flying bird in the New World, the Andean condor, lives in the western mountains. The Rufous Hornero is the National Bird. Bird watching is a popular activity.
Argentina has many BRIDGES. The Puente de la Mujer (Spanish for "Women's Bridge" is a rotating footbridge for Dock 3 of the Puerto Madero commercial district of Buenos Aires. A number of streets in the Puerto Madero district have women's names, thus giving the bridge its name.
Argentina has all forms of COMMUNICATIONS. There are many radio stations and the first broadcast was in 1920. Television broadcasting began in 1951. The postal code uses a letter that identifies the province, a four-digit number, and then three more letters (and slightly different numbers are used for different parts of a city). Local landline phone numbers in Argentina can have 6, 7 or 8 digits, depending on where they are located. Many newspapers are published in Argentina. La Capital was founded in 1867 and is the oldest newspaper in the country. Argentina has many Internet Service Providers. Wi-fi is available in many places and there are Internet cafes and telephone centers in practically all Argentine towns and cities. Webcams are located throughout Argentina.
The peso is the CURRENCY of Argentina. It is preceded by the $ sign and divided into 100 centavos.. The peso dates back to 1826 when it was a name often used for the silver Spanish eight- real coin. In 1992, 1-, 5-, 10-, 25- and 50-centavo coins were introduced, followed by 1 peso in 1994. Two peso coins for circulation were introduced in 2010. The 1-centavo coins were last minted in 2001. In 2017, there are plans to issue a new series of coins in $5 and $10 denominations. The Casa de Moneda, the Argentine mint, produces legal tender coins and banknotes. It also produces medals and security prints that are used and issued by government-run service providers.
Some of the largest DINOSAURS are found in Argentina and many fossils are found. The Eoraptor was one of the earliest known dinosaurs living during the late Triassic period in the region that is now northwestern Argentina. There is a major Jurassic-era fossil site in Patagonia. The fossils discovered near Villa El Chocon are so important that the area was declared a national historic interest and named Dinosaurs' Valley. The Carmen Funes Municipal Museum in Plaza Huincul is best known for its collection of dinosaur fossils, including the only specimen of the largest recorded dinosaur remains, Argentinosaurus huinculensis, and the only known sauropod embryos, which were discovered at a huge nesting site in Auca Mahuida, Patagonia. The Museum of Paleontology is a science research and exhibition center in Trelew city. It has permanent and travelling exhibitions that focus on the fossils remains from fauna and flora of Patagonia, as well as the geological changes that affected the region throughout prehistory. The permanent exhibition is a journey into the natural past of Patagonia. It begins about 10,000 years ago, with the first human settlements in the area. In each room, specimens from both terrestrial and marine life forms are shown for each geological period, up to the early Paleozoic. The Mesozoic hall depicts the giant dinosaurs of Patagomoa. The traveling exhibition featuring the "Dinosaurs of Patagonia" has visited many cities in Argentina and abroad. (See "Parks" for dinosaurs in National Parks)
EDUCATION in Argentina in state institutions is free at the initial, primary, secondary and tertiary levels and in the undergraduate university level (not for graduate programs). Education is a responsibility shared by the national government, the provinces, and federal district, and private institutions though basic guidelines have historically been set by the Ministry of Education. Kindergarten is optional for children aged four and five. Mandatory education begins at age 6 and ends at 14. There are not any public school buses and students must buy their own books and uniforms. The uniforms look like white laboratory coats and are worn over regular clothes. Private schools are often sponsored by churches or organizations and charge tuition fees. For children with special needs, there are separate programs. Homeschooling is not yet formally recognized as an alternative form of education. The country has International and Bi-lingual schools.
Argentina has special EVENTS throughout the year. There are also Holidays and Festivals. The Buenos Aires International Festival of Independent Cinema is held each year in April.The World Tango Dance Tournament is held in Buenos Aires usually in August. The Academia Nacional del Tango has the history of the Tango. The Tango is a partner dance that originated in the 1800s.
The flag of Argentina is a triband composed of three equally wide horizontal bands colored light blue, and white. It was first raised at the city of Rosario on February 27, 1812, during the Argentine War of Independence. The National Flag Memorial was later built on the site. The Congress of Tucumán designated it as the national flag in 1816. A Sun of May was added to the center in 1818. The full flag featuring the sun is called the Official Ceremonial Flag. The flag without the sun is considered the Ornamental Flag. While both versions are equally considered the national flag, the ornamental version must always be hoisted below the Official Ceremony Flag. Flag Day is celebrated on June 20 the anniversary of the death of Manuel Belgrano who created the current flag. The Government House at Jujuy displays the first Argentine flag.The Argentine flag inspired the flag of several countries. The country has several National Symbols.
The history of FOOD in Argentina is rich and diverse. The first people to live in Argentina, the northwestern Indians, were farmers who grew squash, melons, and sweet potatoes and the Guaraní, who lived in the northeast, were hunter gatherers. Spanish settlers came to Argentina in 1536 and introduced cattle to the Pampas. European settlers are largely responsible for food in Argentina. Throughout the 19th century, most of the immigrants were from Italy and Spain. The British started the tradition of teatime. The Typical foods include meat, Chorizo, a type of pork sausage, Empanada, a stuffed bread or pastry, and Italian staples, such as pizza and pasta, The National drink of Argentina is Yerba Mate. An Asado(barbque) is the National Dish. Locro is a national dish traditionally served on May 25 to mark Argentina's May Revolution. The country has has Food Festivals, Events, and Shows. The Grape Harvest National Festival takes place annually in Mendoza City and is one of the most important festivals in the country
Argentina has had several
Pucara de Tilcara is a pre-Inca fortification located on a hill just outside the small town of
Tilcara. The location was chosen to be easily defensible and to provide good views over a long stretch of the
Quebrada de Humahuaca. The
Zanja de Alsinia were a system of trenches and wooden watchtowers built in the center and south of the Buenos Aires Province to defend the territories of the federal government against indigenous Mapuches malones.
Argentina has a couple of GHOST TOWNS. Villa Epecuén was a tourist village in Buenos Aires Province. It flooded in 1985 and was abandoned. The town now has a sole resident who returned in 2009 when the waters receded after covering the town for 25 years. Alemanía was the last stop on the Belgrano railway line from Salta, which was supposed to be continued onward to Cafayate. The railway line was closed and only 8 families reside in the area.
The GLOBAL POSITION of Argentina is approximately 34 degrees latitude south and 64 degrees longitude west. The geographic center is Cordoba. The lowest point is Laguna del Carbón which is also the lowest point in the Western and Southern Hemispheres and the 7th lowest point in the world. Mt. Aconcagua is not only the highest point in the country, but is also the tallest mountain in the Americas. Argentina is bordered by Chile to the west, Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south. Ushuaia is considered the southernmost city in the world. Except for the mountainous western area, the topography of Argentina is for the most part a lowland country. It is divided into 4 topographical regions: The Andean Region, the subtropical plain of the north, the Pampas, and Patagonia.
The HISTORY of Argentina is divided into several parts. Prehistory began with the first human settlements on the southern tip of Patagonia around 13,000 years ago. Written history began with the arrival of the Spanish in 1516. In 1776 the Spanish Crown established the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. A Revolution in 1810 began a process of gradual formation of several independent states. In 1816 a Declaration of Independence declared the independence of the United Provinces of South America, which is still today one of the legal names of the Argentine Republic. With the military defeat of the Spanish Empire in 1824, a federal state was formed in 1853-1861 known today as the Republic of Argentina.. The country claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia, and the South Sandwich Islands. The Casa National del Bicentenario, a cultural center and museum, includes a historical library, a continuous video display (Argentina 1810–2010), an open-air theater, temporary exhibit halls, digitalized archives, and an educational television channel. A new exhibit, Mujeres 1810–2010, was dedicated to the historical role of women in Argentina.
Argentina has many HOLIDAYS and holidays of many faiths are respected. Historic holidays include the celebration of the May Revolution (25 May), Independence Day (9 July), National Flag Day (20 June), and the death of José de San Martín (17 August). Other holidays include Christmas (December 25), Good Friday, Easter, Labor Day (1 May), and Veterans Day (2 April). Other observances include Teacher's Day (September 11), Student's Day/Spring Day (September 21), Friend's Day (July 20), Mothers' Day (Third Sunday of October), Animals' Day (April 29), Fathers' Day (Third Sunday of June), Children's Day (Third Sunday of August), and Navy Day (May 17).
Argentina has a variety of INSECTS. Many species of butterflies exist in Argentina especially in the Iguazu province.The area of Iguazu Falls, where the countries of Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay meet, is one of the best places in the world to see butterflies. Every few years the locust plague hits Argentina and when it comes, it strikes Cordoba unusually hard. In January 2016 the country had the largest locust swarm in the past 60 years.
Argentina has many ISLANDS including the Falkland Islands and the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands which are claimed by Argentina but are administered ty the United Kingdom. Argentina's claim to Antarctica overlaps with the claims of Chile and the United Kingdom. All these claims are subject to the Antarctic Treaty and none have gained wide international recognition. The island of Tierra del Fuego is divided between Argentina and Chile.
JUDICIAL System is administered by both federal and provincial courts. The Supreme Court is composed of 9 members nominated by the president and confirmed by the Senate. Other federal courts include 9 appellate courts, with 3 judges for each; single-judge district courts, at least 1 for each province; and one-judge territorial courts. The federal courts may not decide political questions. Judges of the lower courts are appointed by the president.
Many aspect of Argentina focus on KIDS and there are many things to do including dinosaur museums, beach resorts, and outdoor activities. There are many Fun Things To Do with Kids in Argentina. Buenos Aires provides plenty of museums, parks and shopping malls, many with fun areas for kids. Iguazú Fallshas wildlife and boat rides. Bariloche has outdoor activities such as hiking, rock climbing, horseback riding, and rafting.
Argentina has at least 40 spoken LANGUAGES including indigenous and immigrant languages. Guarani is one of the most widely spoken indigenous language in the world and in the Corrientes Province it has joined Spanish as an official language. Quechua, which is spoken in northwest Argentina, was the language of the Inca Empire in Peru and is the most widely spoken indigenous language in the Western Hemisphere. Italian is the second most spoken language in the country. There are about a million Levantine Arabic speakers in Argentina as a result of immigration from the Middle East. Some languages are critically endangered and are likely to become dead languages once the remaining speakers die.
LIBRARIES are located throughout Argentina and some are very beautiful. Most are supported by private institutions, but provincial and municipal governments also provide for them. The national university libraries are coordinated in a network. The National Library is in Buenos Aires. In the territory where the the Argentine Republic is now, there were both public and private libraries from 1610 in schools and monasteries. The capital of Argentina has more bookstores per inhabitant than any other city in the world The city's annual book fair draws over 1 million visitors each year. The country also has over 100 rare and secondhand bookshops.
Argentina has a long coastline and many LIGHTHOUSES. The northern part of the coast is mostly low and sandy, with dangerous shoals offshore. This coast required construction of very tall lighthouses including several that rank with the tallest in the world. Further south, the Patagonian coast is higher and the lighthouses are shorter. El Rincon Lighthouse is the 19th tallest "traditional lighthouse" in the world and one of the tallest concrete lighthouses in the world. Recalada a Bahía Blanca is the 11th tallest "traditional lighthouse" in the world and the tallest lighthouse in the Southern Hemisphere. Active lighthouses are owned by the Argentine Navy and managed by the Navy's Servicio de Hidrografía Naval (SHN). The Spanish word for a lighthouse is faro and smaller lighthouses are often called balizas (beacons). A lighthouse is an important aspect to the mariner.
Argentina has many MOUNTAINS including many high mountains and mountain climbing is a popular activity. Aconcagua is the highest mountain in Argentina, the highest mountain located outside of Asia, and the highest peak in both the Southern and Western Hemispheres. The mountain and its surroundings are part of the Aconcagua National Park. Many mountaineers believe it is the highest nontechnical climb on earth. In 1897, Matthias Zurbriggen from Switzerland was the first to each the summit. Argentina borders the Andes mountain rangeto the west.
Argentina has many MUSEUMS. Click HERE for the 10 best museums in the country. The Natural Sciences Museum has a paleontology section. The Bernardino Rivadavia Natural Sciences Museum has 13 permanent exhibition halls, including an aquarium, a display with specimens collected from Argentina's numerous research stations in Antarctica, a geological collection centered on meteorites found in Argentina, a paleontology section, and a Cenozoic paleontology display.
Argentina has several OBSERVATORIES and a planetarium. The museum at the Galileo Galilei Planetarium has a piece of lunar rock which was brought back to Earth by the Apollo XI mission. It is also home to a collection of 100-million-year-old sea life and amonite fossils from Neuquén Province. A metallic meteorite from Chaco Province is displayed at the entrance terrace. Argentina has Astronomy Clubs & Organizations. In 2016 a meteorite was unearthed in Argentina and experts have declared it to be one of the largest meteorites ever found on Earth. The discovery has been attributed to a meteor shower that hit the region more than 4,000 years ago.
Argentina is a member of many international organizations including the United Nations, the World Health Organization, the World Trade Organization. and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.
Over 44 million PEOPLE live in Argentina and there are many Ethnic Groups including 35 Indigenous Groups. Argentina has many famous and notable people including Pope Francis and 5 Nobel Prize recipients. The Hotel de Inmigrantes is a National Monument and houses the National Museum of Immigration which offers a permanent exhibition of photographs and exhibits relating to daily life in the hotel.
The PORTS at San Lorenzo and Puerto General San Martín are among the largest export outlets in Argentina for primary products. San Nicolas de los Arroyos has an important port on the Paraná River able to service large cargo ships. Bahía Blanca is an important trans-shipping and commercial center.
In Argentina, POSTAL Codes are called códigos postales. Until 1998, Argentina employed a four-digit postal code for each municipality, with the first digit representing a region in the country, except in the case of the city of Buenos Aires. The unique codes became the base for the newer system, officially called CPA (Código Postal Argentino, Argentine Postal Code). The CPA consists of three parts: A single letter that references the province, 4 digits showing the town or city, and 3 letters identifying a side of the city block where the address is located. Argentina Postage Stamps were first issued in 1858 by the Argentine Confederation and nationally by the new Republic's National Postal Service in 1862. The first items of postal stationery were envelopes in 1876 followed by newspaper wrappers and postcards in 1878. Lettercards were issued in 1888 and aerogrammes were first issued in 1963.
Argenting has a variety of REPTILES. Many of them are native to the country and some are only found in Argentina. Well known snake species in Argentina include the Boa Constrictor and a very venomous pit viper named the Yarará. The country also has a variety of Amphibians. Some are native to the country and some are only found in Argentina. The Argentine Horned Frog is sometimes kept as a pet.
Argentina has many RIVERS. The Parana River is the longest river in the Country. The Rio de la Plata is a river and estuary formed by the confluence of the Uruguay and the Paraná rivers. It is 120 miles wide and some consider it the widest river in the world although some consider it an estuary.
SPORTS in Argentina are varied due to the diverse population. There are many team sports and Football is the most popular. There are also many individual sports. Pato is the National Sport. The country has been at the top of the medal count at the South American Games nearly every year since 1978. In the Pan American Games, Argentina holds first place among South American countries and fourth place in the Americas. Cricket has been played in Argentina since 1806. Argentina was one of 8 founding members of the International Olympic Committee, and first participated in the Olympic Games in 1900. The country has been selected as host city for the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics. Padel Tennis is the most participated sport in Argentina. Mountain climbing is a popular sport. Geocaching is a high-tech sport using a Global Positioning Finder and Argentina has many Geocaches.
Argentina has a variety of TRAILS including Hiking Trails and Cycling Trails. Trekking is also popular. The country also has many scenic drives. The 9 de Julio Avenue in Buenos Aires is the widest avenue in the world. The name honors Argentina's Independence Day, July 9, 1816.
TRANSPORTATION in Argentina is mainly based on a complex network of routes, crossed by relatively inexpensive long-distance buses and by cargo trucks. in Argentina has a network of routes. Within urban areas, the main transportation system is by the bus. Buenos Aires has the only underground mass transit system in the country. Argentina has a number of national and international airports.The License Plates in Argentina are used to uniquely identify motor vehicles on the roads of Argentina. The current system employs 3 letters followed by 3 digits issued consecutively. There are a variety of special license plates.
Argentina has many UNIVERSITIES and colleges. Public universities are mostly state funded while private universities require some form of tuition. The University of Buenos Aires is the largest University in the country. It was founded in 1821 and consists of 13 departments, 6 hospitals, 10 museums and is linked to 4 high schools.
Argentina has had many VOLCANOES.The Agua Poca is a monogenetic volcano and has the form of a cinder cone. The Viedma Volcano is a subglacial volcano located below the ice of the Southern Patagonian Ice Field. The 1988 eruption deposited ash and pumice on the ice field and produced a mud flow that reached Viedma Lake. Numerous ash layers in the Viedma lake indicate numerous past eruptions. Tromen is a stratovolcano in western Argentina and rises above the older caldera of the Volcano Negro del Tromen. The Aracar is a large conical stratovolcano. It has a main summit crater which sometimes contains crater lakes, and a secondary crater. The only observed volcanic activity was a possible steam or ash plume in 1993.
Argentina has 4 seasons: winter (June–August), spring (September–November), summer (December–February) and autumn (March–May), all featuring different WEATHER conditions. The most important geographical factors that influence the weather of Argentina are latitude, elevation, and distance from the sea. Most of the country is fairly temperate, but some of the most visited areas, such as hot and humid Buenos Aires and the cold, arid Patagonian Andes, feature extreme weather. During El Niño events, precipitation is higher than normal while during La Niña events, precipitation is lower than normal in the Pampas. Argentina is the only place in the Southern Hemisphere with an extensive portion of arid eastern coastline caused by a longitudinal rain shadow zone.
Argentina has a wide variety of WILDLIFE. Many species are threatened many are critically endangered. Prominent animals in the subtropical north include big cats like the jaguar, puma, and ocelot and many primates including the Howler Monkey. Some unusual animals found in the country are the Tapir, the Peccary, the Bush Dog, and the Capybara, the largest rodent in the world. The central grasslands is home to the Giant Anteater, the Armadillo, the Pampas Cat, the Maned Wolf, the Mara, and the Cavias. There are also Pampas Deer and Pampas Fox. Some of these species extend into Patagonia.The western mountains are home to the Llama, the Guanaco, the Vicuña, the Andean Mountain Cat, and the Kodkod. Southern Argentina is home to the cougar, the Pudú (the world's smallest deer). The Guanaco is one of 4 species of camelids native to Argentina. Two Argentine varieties of Vizcachas live in the Pampas and the Andes in the Cuyo region. The country has several Wildlife Refuges.
Argentina has ZOOS and aquariums. The Buenos Aires zoo closed after 140 years. The animals were moved to nature reserves in Argentina and the zoo will became an educational ecopark and refuge for trafficked animals. The Lujan Zoo has habitats and enclosures with a wide variety of animals and some pens with farm animals and guided tours are available. La Plata Zoo is the biggest public zoo in the country and is organized according to theme patterns. The Mendoza Zoological Park covers 120 acres and has about of 1,100 animals. Mundo Marino in San Clemente del Tuyu is the largest aquarium in South America. It has 20 pools, sea mammals, 80 birds, several fishes, and other coastal animals.